Ketogenic Dietary interventions (KDIs)–which instead of obtaining fuel from glucose derived from carbohydrates, force the body to utilize ketones produced by the liver, derived from stored fats– limit protein intake and some studies have revealed certain health risks that could be posed with long-term adherence. There are other benefits to this plan of eating, which includes weight reduction.
Laboratory research in animal models conducted by Sebatian Stubl MD along with his colleagues revealed the possibility that KDIs (or time-restricted dietary regimens (TRDs) could slow down autosomal dominant polycystic renal disease (ADPKD) progress. The cells that line the cysts that are a result of polycystic kidney disease (PKD) depend on glucose for energy sources and mouse models have demonstrated that a reduction in this source of energy could slow the growth of kidney cysts. “Our results showed that PKD cysts do not adjust to ketosis-related metabolic changes that could be used therapeutically” said doctor. Stubl and colleagues in Clinical Kidney Journal.
With regard to the objectives of the goals of a KDI and the goals of a KDI, The Dr. Stubl and colleagues conducted an investigation to study the effect of dietary interventions for patients suffering from ADPKD. With a focus upon KDI and TRD the researchers conducted an uncontrolled, unbalanced series study that collected and analysed retrospectively patients’ self-reported observations as well as medical information prior to and throughout the development of KDIs.
The study sample comprised 131 patients suffering from ADPKD who had previously tried KDI diets in the past. They included variants of KDIs and TRDs as well as calories-restrictive (CR) eating regimens. The patients were mostly within the United States, and were divided by diet. 74 adhered to a KDI 52 followed a TRD and five on a CR. Over half members of participants in the KDI group also incorporated a TRD or CR to their diet practices. Participants adhered to KDIs for about 6 months on average.
Better health issues for patients with ADPKD
Eighty percent of those who participated in KDIs saw improvements in their health. The majority of participants had recurrent health issues (HIs) prior to implementing KDIs. Of them 67% said they had improved after beginning the diet program and more than 50 percent of all HIs better.
Loss of weight is also another positive effect related to KDI and 90 percent of participants experiencing weight reduction (average, 9.1kg). Participants reported rapid weight loss in those first couple of weeks. This was a gradual decline for 66%, and then remained for 34%..
Of the 74% people who had hypertension, 64% of them reported improvement of the blood pressure (BP) when they had the KDI. Self-reported BP values showed a substantial drop in the mean between 132/85 mm Hg and the 118/76-mm Hg range in those adhering to KDI. Of the 70 participants who reported their estimated glomerular filtering rate (eGFR) 45 of them reported an improvement, eight reported no change, and 17 reported decreased.
Sixty-six per cent of those who participated had the average number of 2.6 new HIs during their KDIs. Of these, hunger, fatigue keto flu, and fatigue were the most frequent. Five-fifths of those with new HIs said that these decreased over time, while 12 percent said that their new HIs continued to be present.
The implementation of KDI was feasible, as per 76% of the participants. 50 percent of the participants followed the diet on a daily basis while 42% skipped the diet at least once a month.
Safety Issues & Things to Consider
The participants had changes that raised concerns about safety The most frequent concern was an increase in cholesterol. The data provided by participants showed an average increase by 13 mg/dL in cholesterol levels as well as for LDL concentrations that were 8.5 mg/dL. The increases were much higher for those in those in the KDI group. One participant had kidney stones, while two others reported an increase in serum creatine.
The team of researchers acknowledged that, since the data was self-reported by the participants, the validity and accuracy of the data is somewhat limited.